Recent studies have challenged that view and suggested that while somatic activity near the DBS electrode may be suppressed, high frequency stimulation increases and regularizes the output from the stimulated nucleus by directly activating axons of local projection neurons. It now appears that suprathreshold currents spreading into regions comprised of axonal fibers passing near or through the target structure as well as surrounding nuclei may also contribute to the beneficial effects of DBS. Together, the stimulation-induced regularization of neuronal output patterns are thought to prevent transmission of pathologic bursting and oscillatory activity within the basal ganglia thalamocortical network, thereby enabling compensatory mechanisms that facilitate normal movements.
Do not begin each section on a new page.
If one section ends part of the way down the page, the next section heading follows immediately on the same page. One important general rule to keep in mind is that a scientific paper is a report about something that has been done in the past.
The present tense is, are is used when stating generalizations or conclusions. The present tense is most often used in the Introduction, Discussion and Conclusion sections of papers. The paper should read as a narrative in which the author describes what was done and what results were obtained from that work.
By reading the title, the work being reported should be clear to the reader without having to read the paper itself. The title, "A Biology Lab Report", tells the reader nothing. An example of a good, self-explanatory title would be: This title reports exactly what the researcher has done by stating three things: The environmental factors that writing a scientific conclusion example manipulated light, temperature.
The parameter that was measured growth. The specific organism that was studied the bacterium, Escherichia coli. If the title had been only "Effects of Light and Temperature on Escherichia coli ", the reader would have to guess which parameters were measured.
That is, were the effects on reproduction, survival, dry weight or something else? If the title had been "Effect of Environmental Factors on Growth of Escherichia coli ", the reader would not know which environmental factors were manipulated. If the title had been "Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of an Organism", then the reader would not know which organism was studied.
In any of the above cases, the reader would be forced to read more of the paper to understand what the researcher had done. If several factors were manipulated, all of them do not have to be listed. Instead, "Effects of Several Environmental Factors on Growth of Populations ofEscherichia coli " if more than two or three factors were manipulated would be appropriate.
The same applies if more than two or three organisms were studied. The researcher would then include the names of the bacteria in the Materials and Methods section of the paper.
An abstract is more than a summary. A summary is a brief restatement of preceding text that is intended to orient a reader who has studied the preceding text.
An abstract is intended to be self-explanatory without reference to the paper, but is not a substitute for the paper. The abstract should present, in about words, the purpose of the paper, general materials and methods including, if any, the scientific and common names of organismssummarized results, and the major conclusions.
Do not include any information that is not contained in the body of the paper. Exclude detailed descriptions of organisms, materials and methods.
Tables or figures, references to tables or figures, or references to literature cited usually are not included in this section. The abstract is usually written last.
An easy way to write the abstract is to extract the most important points from each section of the paper and then use those points to construct a brief description of your study. It should give readers enough information to appreciate your specific objectives within a larger theoretical framework.
After placing your work in a broader context, you should state the specific question s to be answered. This section may also include background information about the problem such as a summary of any research that has been done on the problem in the past and how the present experiment will help to clarify or expand the knowledge in this general area.
All background information gathered from other sources must, of course, be appropriately cited. Proper citation of references will be described later. A helpful strategy in this section is to go from the general, theoretical framework to your specific question.
However, do not make the Introduction too broad. Remember that you are writing for classmates who have knowledge similar to yours.
Present only the most relevant ideas and get quickly to the point of the paper.Sample Conclusions. Email.
Print. Results. According to my experiments, the Energizer maintained its voltage (dependent variable) for approximately a 3% longer period of time (independent variable) than Duracell in a low current drain device. Before I get into the essay conclusion examples, you should know why writing a strong conclusion is so important.
Your conclusion isn’t just a summary of what you’ve already written. True, it’s a little bit about summarizing, but it should take your essay one step further. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to .
The following is an example of a reference list based on the in-text citations used in the Introduction and Conclusion sections in this tutorial.
It has been formatted in accordance with the CSIRO referencing style. Key Info. Your conclusions summarize how your results support or contradict your original hypothesis. Summarize your science fair project results in a few sentences and use this summary to support your conclusion.
Include key facts from your background research to help explain your results as needed.
Example of Critique and Recommendations How does all of this relate to the conclusion? In a review paper, the conclusion is a short, bottom-line piece of writing.