Find out more Comparative Penology and Penal Policy Core This module looks in depth at the various outcomes of the criminal justice process to question what criminal justice systems achieve and how they do it. Drawing on a comparative methodology, the module seeks to compare the approaches of different jurisdictions aaround the world to the question of how we respond to crime. The module will examine various rationales for 'punishing' offenders on the one hand and 'rehabilitating' them on the other.
Permaculture Course Testimonials New Underutilized Crops "The greatest service which can be rendered any country is to add a useful plant to its [agri]culture.
Every food and fuel plant, animal, and fungus species and variety represent options for enhancing the fitness between humans and their environment. Rice Paddies in Vermont at Whole Systems Design Mad River Valley The development of this cornucopia allows us to expand the length of our growing season, the range and density of our nutrition and the variety of our fuel sources.
Taken as a whole this expanding diversity allows us to increase the resilience of the human ecosystem permaculture and its ability to cope with change. The work of plant and animal breeders throughout time has dwindled in the face of industrial, simplifying agriculture.
There have been over 7, named varieties of apple; today we typically choose from less than Wine cap stropharia mushrooms growing on wood chips in our fruit tree groves: Shiitake mushrooms At the Whole Systems Research Farm, Vermont Our land development work involves the planting of crops typically cultivated in neighboring climate zones such as sweet cherries grown in MA and planted in VT as well as high diversity plantings to allow for hybridization and the emergence of new varieties that are more fit to the environment of the site they are growing in.
Both of these strategies are designing for climate change as well as for the fragility and changing nature of existing economic, social and ecological systems. We are actively involved in testing of more than 30 underutilized cold hardy crops that could represent new options for inhabiting zone climates.
Thus far the results have been positive and we are beginning to eat fruits such as seaberry and mushrooms such as stropharia in abundance. These are not the kinds of foods the grocery store or even niche-market retail outlets will be selling anytime soon, but they are two examples of innumerable possibilities.
The people who developed the culinary cornucopia of the past were for the most part curious and ingenious non-professional horticulturists and home-scale gardeners and farmers not corporate botanists and chemists. We can carry on this work of increasing the options for and fitness between our species and the larger life community.
Our approach involves, in part, woody agriculture as articulated here by the great group of eco-agricultural pioneers at Badgersett Research Farm in Minnesota. For more go to: What is Woody Agriculture?
It differs from agroforestry in that no annual crops are grown, and thus little or no tillage is performed. Permanent stands of the woody crop are established and seeds are harvested annually.
Once every years the wood is harvested for biomass by coppicing, whereupon the plants regenerate from the roots and resume production of the food crop one year later. Advantages of a woody agricultural system The concept has been developed at Badgersett Research Farm during the past 20 years.
Data on yields of specific crops indicate commercialization is now possible. No commercial scale Woody Agriculture planting yet exists.
This is the next step necessary to make the tremendous environmental advantages of this cropping system available to farmers. No tillage following establishment, hence vastly decreased erosion and energy requirements. Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency Woody plants are intrinsically more effective at capturing light than annual plants, and can capture 3 times more solar energy per year, which can be used by the plant to make seed or wood.
This photosynthetic efficiency means agricultural woody plants, if used on a very large scale, could reverse present global increases in CO2, and possibly global warming.Through this initiative, Goldman Sachs and the ISB will be able to provide world class education that helps the participants unleash their full potential, think big, and grow their businesses.
A reason for this could be the variability within The main reason for the success of the proposed approach the class “arable crops,” that consist of a variety of different could be the different nature of the used data types, i.e., the crop types.
3 days ago · Even before the exact nature of the “risk-of-bias tool” is revealed, this approach to consensus-building will raise alarm bells for those already doubtful of the disinterestedness of the Gates Foundation.
For one, the definition of an intervention in agriculture, according to Ceres, is one that raises crop productivity. We argue crop simulation modelling is the most reliable way to estimate Yp or Yw and Yg in the context of a specific crop within a defined cropping system because these models can account for interactions among weather, soils and management.
"English Labouring-Class Poets, –" "International Perspectives on Science, Culture and Society" "The Body, Gender and Culture" (ISC)2 Press.
Addressing ambiguities regarding the regulatory status of genome-edited crops is critical to the application of genome editing for developing economically useful crop traits. In this review, progress in GEEN and related techniques in higher plants is considered with respect to the current regulatory status for genome-edited crops.