Weinberg Vaccinating children for travel requires careful evaluation. Whenever possible, children should complete the routine immunizations of childhood on a normal schedule. However, travel at an earlier age may require accelerated schedules.
Terminology To get started in this article, there are some terms that should be defined. Pharmakon can mean sacrament, remedy, poison, talisman, cosmetic, perfume or intoxicant, but in this case, it can be broadly defined as drug.
Logos can be translated as a principle of order and knowledge. By combining the terms you can see that pharmacology is concerned with the knowledge of drugs.
These medications are generally considered sufficiently safe for a patient to acquire and self medicate with by following the instructions included on the vial. Examples of this include: These medications may or may not be considered abusable, but consultation with a medical professional that has prescribing authority is necessary due to the complex health conditions that these medications may be able to treat or ameliorate.
Often, you will see the phrase "Rx only" used to denote legend drugs. There are 5 schedules of controlled substances with various prescribing guidelines based on abuse potential counter balanced by potential medicinal benefit as determined by the Drug Enforcement Administration and individual state legislative branches.
This category may also include herbal supplements. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins.
Each brand name is owned by the company and begins with a capital letter, and it is protected by a trademark.
Drugs often have several brand names. The terms trade name and proprietary name may also be used interchangeably with brand name. The Federal Food and Drug Administration FDA requires that each drug has a generic name, even if currently it is only available as a brand name product.
A generic name may also be referred to as the non-proprietary name. To ensure that a specific generic product is considered to be a therapeutic equivalent, it is recommended that you refer to the Orange Booka publication from the Food and Drug Administration FDA.
If the products being compared in the Orange Book are considered therapeutic equivalents, it will be given a Therapeutic Equivalence TE Code that begins with an "A".
If the products are not considered therapeutic equivalents, they will be given a TE Code that begins with a "B".
Sometimes these will be referred to as "A" ratings and "B" ratings. These ratings are typically two letters long and will sometimes include a number as well. If a number is included after the two letter code that must also match to be considered therapeutically equivalent.
The first 4 or 5 digits indicate the manufacturer The second 3 or 4 indicate the medication, strength, and dosage form The third set of numbers always has 2 digits and indicates the package size classification - This is how a medication is grouped and is typically defined according to its use in treating a particular disease or disorder.
A potential source of confusion is that many medications could be grouped multiple ways. An example of this is aspirin, which can be classified as an analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory agent.
This may include both FDA approved uses as well as off-label generally based on scientific studies but lacking FDA approval medication uses. The route of administration is dependent on the dosage form of a given drug.
As an example, persistent vomiting may make it difficult to use an oral dosage form; therefore, an antiemetic in suppository form may be desirable. Medications may also interact with various diseases.
The term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, but it can also apply to beneficial consequences of the use of a drug. A side effect of diphenhydramine an antihistamine is drowsiness, which would be an adverse effect if someone needed to be alert, but could be beneficial if they required help going to sleep.
It does not include any risks conferred by pharmaceutical agents or their metabolites that are present in breast milk. Pregnancy Category A - Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters.
Pregnancy Category B - Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women OR Animal studies which have shown an adverse effect, but adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in any trimester.
Pregnancy Category C - Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Pregnancy Category D - There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Common categories for excipients include antiadherents, binders, coatings, disintegrants, fillers, flavors and colors, glidants, lubricants, preservatives, sweeteners, and printing inks. Common medications Pharmacy technicians should be able to categorize drugs into major therapeutic classifications and be able to briefly describe the therapeutic use of each drug.
Technicians should also be able to correlate brand name medications with the generic names. The following subsections will break the drugs down into various therapeutic classes, with descriptions of these classes followed by a list of generic drug names accompanied by their most common brand names and commercially available dosage forms.
These lists are not to be considered comprehensive, but instead just provide some of the more common items to serve as a quick refresher.
If you want more information on a particular drug, please using additional drug information resources. Anti-infective agents An anti-infective also called an antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, protozoans or viruses.
In this section we will look at antibiotics, antifungals, amebicides, and antivirals.(2) Pada daerah dengan tingkat epidemi HIV meluas dan terkonsentrasi. penderita HIV yang pasangannya negatif. Pasal 5 (1) Pengobatan antiretroviral dimulai di rumah sakit yang sekurang- kurangnya kelas C dan dapat dilanjutkan di puskesmas atau fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan lainnya yang memiliki.
Oral polio vaccine with the three antigen forms of polio. IPV is the inactivated polio vaccine, which is more expensive and protects individuals, but does not prevent spread of virus in community. MALARIA Malaria is a parasitic disease that involves high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like symptoms, and anemia.
CAUSES: Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Ed's Guide to Alternative Therapies. Contents: Acai Berries Acupuncture Artemisinin for cancer Beta-mannan to reverse dysplasia of the .
DEATH BY VACCINATION. PART OF THE WATCHDOG USA NETWORK. If vaccines were safe, there would not be a VAERS COURT to pay out Billions of Tax Dollars to families of dead and crippled children.
Tetanus Tetanus (The Basics) View in Chinese Travel precautions Hepatitis Blood or body fluid exposure (The Basics) View in Chinese Hepatitis A (Beyond the Basics) Cold sores (oral herpes) (The Basics) View in Chinese Impetigo (Beyond the Basics).