Igor Kolos Shutterstock Marijuana is a combination of shredded leaves, stems and flower buds of the Cannabis sativa plant.
Cannabidivarin Cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors[ edit ] The most prevalent psychoactive substances in cannabis are cannabinoidsmost notably THC. How these other compounds interact with THC is not fully understood.
Some clinical studies have proposed that CBD acts as a balancing force to regulate the strength of the psychoactive agent THC. The essential oil of cannabis contains many fragrant terpenoids which may synergize with the cannabinoids to produce their unique effects.
Research in rats has indicated that THC prevented hydroperoxide -induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical Fenton reaction system and neuronal cultures. Cannabidiol was significantly more protective than either vitamin E or vitamin C.
A signature of this type of receptor is the distinct pattern of how the receptor molecule spans the cell membrane seven times. The location of cannabinoid receptors exists on the cell membrane, and both outside extracellularly and inside intracellularly the cell membrane.
CB1 receptors, the bigger of the two, are extraordinarily abundant in the brain: CB2 receptors are most commonly prevalent on B-cellsnatural killer cellsand monocytesbut can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cellsT8 cellsand T4 cells.
In the tonsils the CB2 receptors appear to be restricted to B-lymphocyte -enriched areas. THC and its endogenous equivalent anandamide additionally interact with glycine receptors. Biochemical mechanisms in the brain[ edit ] See also: Like most other neurological processes, the effects of cannabis on the brain follow the standard protocol of signal transductionthe electrochemical system of sending signals through neurons for a biological response.
It is now understood that cannabinoid receptors appear in similar forms in most vertebrates and invertebrates and have a long evolutionary history of million years. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.
The CB2 receptor is most abundantly found on cells of the immune system. Cannabinoids act as immunomodulators at CB2 receptors, meaning they increase some immune responses and decrease others. For example, nonpsychotropic cannabinoids can be used as a very effective anti-inflammatory.
It is clear that cannabinoids can affect pain transmission and, specifically, that cannabinoids interact with the brain's endogenous opioid system and may affect dopamine transmission. Cannabis drug testing Most cannabinoids are lipophilic fat soluble compounds that are easily stored in fat, thus yielding a long elimination half-life relative to other recreational drugs.
The THC molecule, and related compounds, are usually detectable in drug tests from 3 days up to 10 days according to Redwood Laboratories; long-term users can produce positive tests for two to three months after ceasing cannabis use see drug test.
Related to smoking[ edit ] A study found that while tobacco and cannabis smoke are quite similar, cannabis smoke contained higher amounts of ammoniahydrogen cyanideand nitrogen oxidesbut lower levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs. This tar is chemically similar to that found in tobacco smoke or cigars.
Other observations include possible increased risk from each cigarette; lack of research on the effect of cannabis smoke alone; low rate of addiction compared to tobacco; and episodic nature of cannabis use compared to steady frequent smoking of tobacco.
Further, he notes that other studies have failed to connect cannabis with lung cancer, and accuses the BLF of "scaremongering over cannabis".
Psychological effects[ edit ] A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India. The psychoactive effects of cannabis, known as a " high ", are subjective and can vary based on the person and the method of use.
When THC enters the blood stream and reaches the brain, it binds to cannabinoid receptors. The endogenous ligand of these receptors is anandamidethe effects of which THC emulates.The effects of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant, including cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is only one of more than different cannabinoids present in the plant.
Cannabis has various psychological and physiological effects on the human body.. Different plants of the genus Cannabis .
Smoking and drinking are two lifestyle habits that get a lot of negative criticism in the health industry, and for good reason.
They both cause multiple complications with the body . The secret is out – smoking causes harm to the body. Anything from smoking a cigarette to inhaling the toxic fumes from cigarettes around you can cause unwanted, detrimental effects.
Tobacco is dangerous for your health, no matter how you ingest it. Smoking can lead to a variety of ongoing effects in your body, as well as long-term complications in your body systems. On top of. Smoking affects the blood vessels, which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the entire body.
When the skin is deprived of these essential nutrients, changes . Smoking leads to disease and disability and harms nearly every organ of the body. More than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking.