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His speculation about what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history. The Spring and Autumn Annalsthe official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from to BCEis among the earliest surviving Chinese historical texts arranged on annalistic principles.
Sima Qian around BCE was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing. His written work was the Shiji Records of the Grand Historiana monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Its scope extends as far back as the 16th century BCEand it includes many treatises on specific subjects and individual biographies of prominent people, and also explores the lives and deeds of commoners, both contemporary and those of previous eras.
Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the Middle Ages.
They wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers.
In the Early Middle Ages historical writing often took the form of annals or chronicles recording events year by year, but this style tended to hamper the analysis of events and causes.
With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, scholars had to verify which sources were more reliable.
To evaluate these sources, they developed various methodologies, such as the science of biographyscience of hadith and Isnad chain of transmission. They later applied these methodologies to other historical figures in the Islamic civilization.
Famous historians in this tradition include Urwah d. Enlightenment[ edit ] During the Age of Enlightenmentthe modern development of historiography through the application of scrupulous methods began. Painting by Pierre Charles Baquoy.
French philosophe Voltaire — had an enormous influence on the art of history writing. He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture, and political history.
At the same time, philosopher David Hume was having a similar impact on history in Great Britain.
Inhe published the History of Englanda six-volume work that extended from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature and science, as well.
He was also one of the first historians who understood the importance of general and universally applicable ideas in the shaping of historical events. Because of its relative objectivity and heavy use of primary sourcesat the time its methodology became a model for later historians.
This has led to Gibbon being called the first "modern historian". Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, "His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting.Search and review every show and Movie in the complete Stan Video on Demand library, including new releases as well as the most popular titles!
The Chinese really present their red line in Taiwan. That is where they will go all out (and North Korea if it is attacked). South China Sea is by definition ( miles from Hainan and mainland) a naval battle. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity.
Find stories, updates and expert opinion. Objectivity. During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, and reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus".
This was necessary so that there would be a legal bench mark to compare and contrast the. Hellenistic Monarchs down to the Roman Empire. The Hellenistic Age suffers from some of the same disabilities as Late Antiquity, i.e. it doesn't measure up to the brilliance of the Golden Age of Greece and of late Republican and early Imperial Rome.
Enforced Method Acting: (noun): An acting technique in which actors give a life-like, realistic performance by actually experiencing the emotional conditions under which the character operates. Enforced Method Acting is a cinematic concept in which the actors and actresses of a work give reactions that are unplanned and unscripted or are otherwise made to genuinely feel the emotions that they.