It is best understood as both an intellectual and a normative project. What is commonly understood as feminist theory accompanied the feminist movement in the mid-seventies, though there are key texts from the 19th and early- to midth centuries that represent early feminist thought. Thus, while many theorists do focus on the question of how gender inequality manifests in institutions such as the workplace, home, armed forces, economy, or public sphere, others explore the range of practices that have come to be defined as masculine or feminine and how gender is constituted in relation to other social relations. Feminist theories can thus be used to explain how institutions operate with normative gendered assumptions and selectively reward or punish gendered practices.
Methods employed[ edit ] Feminist scholarship has developed a variety of ways to unpack literature in order to understand its essence through a feminist lens.
Gynocriticism was introduced during the time of second wave feminism. The ultimate goal of any of these tools is to uncover and expose patriarchal underlying tensions within novels and interrogate the ways in which our basic literary assumptions about such novels are contingent on female subordination.
In this way, the accessibility of literature broadens to a far more inclusive and holistic population. Moreover, works that historically received little or no attention, given the historical constraints around female authorship in some cultures, are able to be heard in their original form and unabridged.
This makes a broader collection of literature for all readers insofar as all great works of literature are given exposure without bias towards a gender influenced system. The rise of decadent feminist literature in the s was meant to directly challenge the sexual politics of the patriarchy.
By employing a wide range of female sexual exploration and lesbian and queer identities by those like Rita Felski and Judith Bennet, women were able attract more attention about feminist topics in literature.
It has also considered gender in the terms of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysisas part of the An analysis of the modern feminist theory of existing relations of power, and as a concrete political investment. More specifically, modern feminist criticism deals with those issues related to the perceived intentional and unintentional patriarchal programming within key aspects of society including education, politics and the work force.
Beginning with the interrogation of male-centric literature that portrayed women in a demeaning and oppressed model, theorist such as Mary Ellman, Kate Millet and Germaine Greer challenged past imaginations of the feminine within literary scholarship. Within second-wave feminism, three phases can be defined: During the feminine phase, female writers adhered to male values.
By this time, scholars were not only interested in simply demarcating narratives of oppression but also creating a literary space for past, present and future female literary scholars to substantiate their experience in a genuine way that appreciates the aesthetic form of their works.
Additionally, Black literary feminist scholars began to emerge, in the post-Civil Rights era of the United States, as a response to the masculine-centric narratives of Black empowerments began to gain momentum over female voices. An Anthology, edited by Cade is seen as essential to the rise of Black literary criticism and theory.
The literary scholarship also included began with the perception of Black female writers being under received relative to their talent. The Combahee River Collective released what is called one of the most famous pieces in Black literary scholarship known as "A Black Feminist Statement"which sought to prove that literary feminism was an important component to black female liberation.
This publication has become a staple of feminist criticism and has expanded the realm of publications considered to be feminist works, especially in the 19th century.
The book specifically argues that women have largely been considered in two distinct categories by men in academia, monsters or angels. Today, writers like Gloria E. During that same time, Deborah E. McDowell published New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism, which called for a more theoretical school of criticism versus the current writings, which she deemed overly practical.
As time moved forward, the theory began to disperse in ideology. Many decided to shift towards the nuanced psychological factors of the Black experience and further away from broad sweeping generalizations.
Others began to connect their works to the politics of lesbianism. Some decided to analyze the Black experience through their relationship to the Western world. Regardless, these scholars continue to employ a variety of methods to explore the identity of Black feminism in literature.
Currently, several university scholars all employ the usage of literary feminism when critiquing texts. The mainstreaming of this school has given academia an extremely useful tool in raising questions over the gender relationships within texts.
Third wave feminism and feminist literary criticism is concerned more with the intersection of race and other feminist concerns. At the same time, new feminist literary critics examine the universal images used by women writers to uncover the unconscious symbolism women have used to describe themselves, their world, female society across time and nationalities to uncover the specifically feminine language in literature.Published: Mon, 24 Apr Belief in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes, the movement organized around this belief.
Feminist theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to empower women worldwide. Feminist theory is a major branch of theory within sociology that shifts its assumptions, analytic lens, and topical focus away from the male viewpoint and experience and toward that of women.
In doing so, feminist theory shines a light on social problems, trends, and issues that are otherwise overlooked or misidentified by the historically dominant male .
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, sought to bring a feminist analysis to previous psychological theories, proving that "there was nothing wrong with women, but rather with the way modern culture viewed them".
a modern feminist philosopher. The following entry presents analysis and criticism of contemporary feminist literary theory through Sometimes referred to as “Third-Wave Feminism,” “Postfeminism,” or “Revisionary. Essay on Feminism and Modern Feminist Theory Words 5 Pages Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women.
Modern Feminist Theory 9 While her discussion inspires hunger in the reader and in the writer (filet of soles, partridges, and a wonderful meringue are served) what is also inspires is a sense of.