See Article History Alternative Title: BOP Basic oxygen process BOPa steelmaking method in which pure oxygen is blown into a bath of molten blast-furnace iron and scrap. The oxygen initiates a series of intensively exothermic heat-releasing reactions, including the oxidation of such impurities as carbonsiliconphosphorusand manganese.
History[ edit ] Bethlehem Steel Bethlehem, Pennsylvania facility pictured was one of the world's largest manufacturers of steel before its closure in Steelmaking has played a crucial role in the development of ancient, medieval, and modern technological societies.
Early processes of steel making were made during the classical era in Ancient IranAncient ChinaIndiaand Romebut the process of ancient steelmaking was lost in the West due to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE. For much of human history, steel has only been made in small quantities.
Since the invention of the Bessemer process in the 19th century and subsequent technological developments in injection technology and process controlmass production of steel has become an integral part of the global economy and a key indicator of modern technological development.
Early modern methods of producing steel were often labour-intensive and highly skilled arts. An important aspect of the Industrial Revolution was the development of large-scale methods of producing forgeable metal bar iron or steel. The puddling furnace was initially a means of producing wrought ironbut was later applied to steel production.
The real revolution in modern steelmaking only began at the end of the s when the Bessemer process became the first successful method of steelmaking in quantity, followed by the open-hearth furnace. Modern processes[ edit ] Modern steelmaking processes can be divided into two categories: Primary and Secondary steelmaking.
Primary steelmaking involves converting liquid iron from a blast furnace and steel scrap into steel via basic oxygen steelmakingor melting scrap steel or direct reduced iron DRI in an electric arc furnace. Secondary steelmaking involves refining of the crude steel before casting and the various operations are normally carried out in ladles.
In secondary metallurgy, alloying agents are added, dissolved gases in the steel are lowered, and inclusions are removed or altered chemically to ensure that high-quality steel is produced after casting.
Basic oxygen steelmaking Basic oxygen steelmaking is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel.
Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into steel. The process is known as basic due to the chemical nature of the refractories — calcium oxide and magnesium oxide —that line the vessel to withstand the high temperature and corrosive nature of the molten metal and slag in the vessel.
The slag chemistry of the process is also controlled to ensure that impurities such as silicon and phosphorus are removed from the metal.
It reduced capital cost of the plants, time of smelting, and increased labor productivity. Between andlabour requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of 1, from more than 3 worker-hours per tonne to just 0.
Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to tons and convert it into steel in less than 40 minutes, compared to 10—12 hours in an open hearth furnace. In an electric arc furnace, a batch of steel "heat" may be started by loading scrap or direct reduced iron into the furnace, sometimes with a "hot heel" molten steel from a previous heat.
Gas burners may be used to assist with the melt down of the scrap pile in the furnace. As in basic oxygen steelmaking, fluxes are also added to protect the lining of the vessel and help improve the removal of impurities.
Electric arc furnace steelmaking typically uses furnaces of capacity around tonnes that produce steel every 40 to 50 minutes for further processing. Some of the operations performed in ladles include de-oxidation or "killing"vacuum degassing, alloy addition, inclusion removal, inclusion chemistry modification, de-sulphurisation and homogenisation.
It is now common to perform ladle metallurgical operations in gas stirred ladles with electric arc heating in the lid of the furnace.
Tight control of ladle metallurgy is associated with producing high grades of steel in which the tolerances in chemistry and consistency are narrow. HIsarna ironmaking process The HIsarna ironmaking process is a process for iron making in which iron ore is processed almost directly into liquid iron or hot metal.
The process is based around a new type of blast furnace called a Cyclone Converter Furnace, which makes it possible to skip the process of manufacturing pig iron pellets that is necessary for the basic oxygen steelmaking process.
Without the necessity for this preparatory step the HIsarna process is more energy-efficient and has a lower carbon footprint than traditional steelmaking processes.Steelmaking involves the removal of iron's impurities and the addition of desirable alloying elements.
Steel was first made by cementation, a process of heating bars of iron with charcoal so that the surface of the iron acquired a high carbon content. Description Control and Analysis in Iron and Steelmaking discusses the associated instrumentations and processes involved in iron and steel manufacture, with an emphasis on .
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Control and Analysis in Iron and Steelmaking discusses the associated instrumentations and processes involved in iron and steel manufacture, with an emphasis on the process technol read full description.
Description of the steelmaking process, from United States Steel. Covers iron ore preparation, coke-making, blast furnace operation, basic oxygen #steelmaking, ladle furnace treatment, continuous casting of slab, the hot .
Today, steel production makes use of recycled materials as well as traditional raw materials, such as iron ore, coal, and limestone. Two processes, basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) and electric arc furnaces (EAF), account for virtually all steel production.