A comprehensive analysis of the scientific method and the general scientific knowledge

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A comprehensive analysis of the scientific method and the general scientific knowledge

Northwestern University This paper first summarizes the central theory of psychoanalysis, beginning with Freud's groundbreaking contributions divided into five parts: It then moves on to more recent developments within the Freudian framework.

Next there is an account of the basic techniques of psychoanalytical treatment.

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Finally, there is a section on some of the many criticisms of psychoanalysis, with responses. Psychoanalysis remains the single most influential theory for the practice of psychotherapy. Freud began the movement, so this paper will begin with his foundation.

One way of dividing his theory is into five parts: He traces all instincts, and in a certain sense therefore all actions, back to two instincts; they are the Eros "sexual instinct" or "libido" and the "destructive aggressive instinct.

The primary example of this is sex itself, where of course the libido is present, and varying degrees of aggression or lack thereof can lead someone to either be bashful and impotent or a sex murderer, and anything in-between.

This attempts, in some fashion, to abstractly quantify the power of instincts through the concept of "psychic energy. This, however, is balanced by the concept of anti-cathexes, in which the energy is invested as a force against the instinct, via defense in the ego this concept will be further elaborated in the section on the structural model.

Freud noted three major ideas in his theory that contradicted common beliefs. First, sexual life begins at birth. Second, a distinction between 'sexual' and 'genital' has to be made, because the former is a broader term encompassing many things totally disconnected from the genitals, for example oral and anal pleasure Freud, Third, physical pleasure may be brought into the service of reproduction, but the two often fail to coincide completely.

His model of development is four stages long, and only lasts through early life other more complex models that give detailed representations of adulthood have been proposed by others; Erickson's will be addressed later in the section of this paper devoted to developments within the Freudian framework.

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The oral phase begins at birth, when the mouth is the only erotogenic zone. It is, of course, for the purpose of nourishment that the baby persistently sucks at its mother's breast, but the baby nevertheless derives pleasure from this.

The Sadistic- Anal Phase is characterized by satisfaction being sought in aggression and in the excretory function. In the Phallic Phase the male genitals take center stage. The male then enters the "Oedipal Stage" and begins touching his penis and fantasizing about doing something with it to his mother, until the threat of castration and realization of the lack of a penis in females throws him into the period of latency.

In Freud's view, girls, recognizing their lack of a penis and inferior clitoris, suffer developmentally and often begin turning away from sex altogether.

A comprehensive analysis of the scientific method and the general scientific knowledge

The next phase, puberty, is the one in which the individuals become increasingly aware of their adult sexual roles. Structural The fourth point of Freud's theory, the all-important "structural" divisions, come under two main categories: The structural model consists of three parts: The id is the agency of the "psychical apparatus" which contains much of what is inherited there are also inherited ego characteristicsincluding the instincts.

Psychic energy gets displaced and transformed, and then eventually discharged through action.

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Psychic determinism is that the instincts and their vicissitudes determine human behavior, modified by the ego. The ego is the agency that acts as an intermediary between the id and the external world.

A comprehensive analysis of the scientific method and the general scientific knowledge

It takes on the tasks of voluntary movement using muscles in response to stimuli and self preservation. It is charged with gaining control over the demands of the instincts, and choosing which ones to satisfy and when.

The ego seeks pleasure and avoids unpleasure. When increases in unpleasure are expected, they are met by anxiety.


The ego not only has to balance the id with reality, but also with the superego. The superego is the agency formed over time by the parents and society of the individual.

It observes, orders, judges, and threatens the ego with punishment just like the parents whose place it has taken. We are generally aware of it as our conscience.Definitions of scientific knowledge.

1. n knowledge accumulated by systematic study and organized by general principles “mathematics is the basis for much scientific knowledge. Scientific papers on Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology - apply now!

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Scientific method - Wikipedia