Finding good introductory philosophy books can be difficult for two reasons. One person may be looking for a short, beginner friendly introduction, someone else may want a comprehensive academic overview, a third person may be looking for classic works by Descartes.
His ideas had enormous influence on the development of Epistemology and Political Philosophyand he is widely regarded as one of the most influential early Enlightenment thinkers. He is usually considered the first of the British Empiriciststhe movement which included George Berkeley and David Humeand which provided the main opposition to the 17th Century Continental Rationalists.
He argued that all of our ideas are ultimately derived from experience, and the knowledge of which we are capable is therefore severely limited in its scope and certainty. His Philosophy of Mind is often cited as the origin for modern conceptions of identity and "the self".
He also postulated, contrary to Cartesian and Christian philosophy, that the mind was a "tabula rasa" or "blank slate" and that people are born without innate ideas.
Along with Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseauhe was also one of the originators of Contractarianism or Social Contract Theorywhich formed the theoretical groundwork of democracy, republicanism and modern Liberalism and Libertarianism.
He is sometimes referred to as the "Philosopher of Freedom", and his political views influenced both the American and French Revolutions. His father, also named John Locke, was a country lawyer and clerk to the Justices of the Peace in the nearby town of Chew Magna, and had served as a captain of the cavalry for the Parliamentarian forces during the early part of the English Civil War.
His mother, Agnes Keene, was a tanner's daughter and reputed to be very beautiful. Both parents were Puritans, and the family moved soon after Locke's birth to the small market town of Pensford, near Bristol.
After completing his studies there, he was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford. Locke was awarded a bachelor's degree inand a master's degree in He was elected lecturer in Greek in and then in Rhetoric inbut he declined the offer of a permanent academic position in order to avoid committing himself to a religious order.
During his time at Oxford, he also studied medicine extensively, and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle, Thomas Willis, Robert Hooke and his friend from Westminster School, Richard Lower. He later obtained a bachelor of medicine qualification in It was through his medical knowledge that he obtained the patronage of the controversial political figure, Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper the 1st Earl of Shaftesburyand in he moved to Shaftesbury's London home to serve as his personal physician.
He was credited with saving Shaftesbury's life after a liver infection became life-threatening. In London, Locke continued his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham, who also had a major influence on Locke's natural philosophical thinking. During the s, Locke served as Secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords and Proprietors of the Carolinas, helping to shape his ideas on international trade and economics.
Locke became more involved in politics and further developed his political ideas when Shaftesbury, a founder of the Whig movement in British politics, became Lord Chancellor in It was also during this time in London that he worked on early drafts of his "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding", eventually published in and considered one of the principal sources of Empiricism in modern philosophy.
After some time traveling across France following Shaftesbury's fall from favor inhe returned to England in when Shaftesbury's political fortunes took a brief positive turnand began the composition of his famous work of Political Philosophythe "Two Treatises of Government", which was published anonymously in order to avoid controversy inand whose ideas about natural rights and government were quite revolutionary for that period in English history.
InLocke fled to Holland, under strong but probably unfounded suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plot. His "Essay" in particular brought great fame, and Locke spent much of the rest of his life responding to admirers and critics by making revisions in later editions of the book.
Inhe moved to his close friend Lady Masham's country house at Oates, Essex. During this period, he became something of an intellectual hero of the Whigs, and he discussed matters with such figures as John Dryden and Sir Isaac Newton.
He continued to work at the Board of Trade from until his retirement in However, his health deteriorated, marked by regular asthma attacks, and he died on 28 Octoberand was buried in the churchyard of High Laver. He never married, and had no children. Work Back to Top Locke wrote on philosophical, scientific and political matters throughout his life, in a voluminous correspondence and ample journals, but the public works for which he is best known were published in a single, sudden burst in - The fundamental principles of Locke's Epistemology are presented in his monumental "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" ofthe culmination of twenty years of reflection on the origins of human knowledge.
In it he argued the empiricist approach that would be adopted by the British Empiricism movement: The knowledge of which we are capable is therefore severely limited in its scope and certainty, in that we can never know the inner nature of the things around us, only their behavior and the way in which they affect us and other things a kind of modified Skepticism.
One of the ways in which they affect us is through our senses, giving us experiences or representations or images of their properties or qualities. Locke saw the properties of things as being of two distinct kinds. Their real inner natures derive from the primary qualities, which we can never experience and so never know.Rene Descartes.
The Subjection of Women. John Stuart Mill.
The Republic. Plato. Leviathan. what are philo's 3 reasons for debate in humes dialogues concerning natural religion. x. What are descartes two arguments in the first meditation of Meditations on First Philosophy?
Doubt, Dualism, and Descartes Rene Descartes’ “Meditations on First Philosophy” was written during a time of new ideas and those radical ideas’ subsequent scrutiny and rejection by the Vatican, Descartes’ idea on philosophy forever changed western philosophy by challenging the accepted ideas of Classical Greek Philosophers and Greek.
By offering, for the first time in a single edition, complete English translations of Apollodorus' Library and Hyginus' Fabulae --the two most important surviving "handbooks" of classical mythography--this volume enables readers to compare the two's versions of the most important Greek and Roman myths.
Descartes Enviado por Alex Tusa Explains the life and thoughts as well as the concepts posed by the philosopher Rene Descartes based upon the Wikipedia page that is credited in this text document. Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes ; Rene Descartes; Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation 2) Rene Descartes; Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation 6) Rene Descartes; Final Thoughts; The Republic Plato; Aristotle: "Every state is a community of some kind.".
- Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes’ third meditation from his book Meditations on First Philosophy, examines Descartes’ arguments for the existence of God. The purpose of this essay will be to explore Descartes’ reasoning and proofs of God’s existence.